Agent interaction pattern
Many abstract social concepts become concrete, observable and measurable phenomena in Multi-Agent Systems. They concern the basic types of social relationships and interaction patterns. Max Weber for example defined power, authority, discipline, etc. in concrete terms of social interactions among persons and actors (i.e. individual agents). Other examples for abstract social and sociological terms which have a concrete, measurable meaning in Multi-Agent Systems are: Power, Freedom, Authority, Domination, Charisma, Discipline, Peace, Solidarity, Commitment, Progress, Conflict, Resolution, Resistance, Rights, Obligations, Conformity, Innovation, Association, Agreement, Acceptance, Refusal, Illusion, Consequence.
Trust is closely related to reputation and usually based on experience and recommendation. It makes social life predictable, creates a sense of community, makes it easier for agents to work together.
TRUST Belief by one agent that the behavior of another agent towards it is benevolent and honest
Reputation is associated with popularity and represents the general opinion of an agent society about an agent. It is based on the general estimation and evaluation of his characteristics, capabilities and usefulness.
REPUTATION Reputation is the belief of an evaluating agent about another agent's usefulness with regard to a certain goal
"A certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is "set apart" from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These as such are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as divine in origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader" (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap. 3.10). Charisma is unfortunately often based on the blaming of others or on clever manipulation of the group, for example by appealing to collective emotions of a larger group of agents.
CHARISMA Property of an agent which increases the belief in other agents that he is a suitable leader. Ability of an agent to draw the attention and admiration of other agents.
Imitation is an advanced form of behavior where an agent observes another's behavior and replicates, reproduces or copies it. It is often said to be the mechanism of memetic evolution, just as replication and reproduction are the mechanisms of genetic evolution.
IMITATION one agent copies or replicates the behavior of another
A swarm is a moving crowd: a large number of agents moving in the same direction. It is an imitation of movement.
"If an orientation toward social action occurs regularly, it will be called 'usage' (Brauch) insofar as the probability of its existence within a group is based on nothing but actual practice." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap. 1.4).
"A usage will be called 'custom' (Sitte) if the practice is based upon long standing". (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap. 1.4).
"An order will be called a 'convention' so far as its validity is externally guaranteed by the probability that deviation from it within a given social group will result in a relatively general and practically significant reaction of disapproval." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap. 1.6).
"An order will be called a 'law' if it is externally guaranteed by the probability that physical or psychological coercion will be applied by a staff or people in order to bring about compliance or avenge violoation." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap. 1.6).
Max Weber says "The term social relationship will be used to designate the situation where two or more persons are engaged in conduct wherein each takes account of the behavior of the other in a meaningful way and is therefore oriented in these terms. The social relationship consists entirely of the probability that individuals will behave in some meaningfully determinable way" (Max Weber, Basic Concepts in Sociology). It is the probability that a certain type of behavior takes place on the average.
RELATIONSHIP A relationship is the probability that agents will behave in some specific way towards each other.
Weber says further that the relationship can be symmetrical or asymmetrical, and it can be of a transitory nature or of varying degrees of permanence.
"A social relationship will be referred to as 'conflict' insofar as action is oriented intentionally to carrying out the actor's own will against the resistance of the other party or parties." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 1.8). A conflict is caused by opposing or contrasting goals, for example by a competition. A conflict is more abstract than a STRUGGLE and characterizes the general state or situation of the whole group. As Weber emphasized, there are many cases of conflicts, from the violent, unlimited and unregulated STRUGGLE to peaceful and regulated COMPETITION.
CONFLICT A conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more agents or groups of agents
"A social relationship will be called a struggle insofar as the behavior of one party is oriented purposefully toward making his own will prevail against the resistance of other parties or another party". (Max Weber, Basic Concepts in Sociology). A struggle is more concrete than a CONFLICT and characterizes the concrete process of a fight.
STRUGGLE Relationship between agents where the behavior of one agents is oriented purposefully toward making their own will prevail against the resistance of other agents
"A peaceful struggle is called competition if it is carried on as a formally peaceful attempt to control over opportunities and advantages which are also coveted by others" (Max Weber, Basic Concepts in Sociology)
COMPETITION In a competition, two or more agents each have mutually inconsistent goals, so that when either agent tries to reach its goal it will undermine the attempts of the other to reach theirs
Cooperation can be considered as the opposite or antithesis to COMPETITION. In a COMPETITION, agents have mutually inconsistent goals, in a cooperation, agents have the same goal, they work together in a COmon OPERATION to achieve a joint, common goal.
COOPERATION Two or more agents work together for a common end, purpose or goal
"Power is the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance, regardless of the basis on which this probability rests." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 1.16). It is related to DOMINATION, Weber originally distinguishes between "Macht" (power) and "Herrschaft" (domination). "By power is meant every opportunity existing within a social relationship which permits one to carry out one's own will even against resistance and regardless of the basis on which this opportunity rests." (Max Weber, Basic Concepts in Sociology). Power expands the ability of some agents to make significant changes in the system.
POWER Chance of an agent to realize the own goals in a social action even against the resistance of others agents
FREEDOM Chance of an agent to realize the own goals, the ability of an agent to act without externally imposed restraints
The more power an agent has, the greater the personal freedom. The more power other agents have (especially officials), the smaller the personal freedom of an agent.
AUTHORITY Degree of legitimacy, justification and rights (due to law, tradition or charisma) of an agent to exercise power
"Domination is the probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of persons" (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 1.16). Weber originally uses the term "Herrschaft" meaning lordship, leadership, governance, dominion and dominance. "By domination is meant the opportunity to have a command of a specified content obeyed by a given group of persons" (Max Weber, Basic Concepts in Sociology)
DOMINATION Probability that a command of an agent with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of agents
"By 'discipline' will be meant the opportunity to obtain prompt, and automatic obedience in a predictable form from a given group of persons because of their practical orientation toward a command." (Max Weber, Basic Concepts in Sociology)
DISCIPLINE Degree of agreement between learned agent behavior obtained by training intended to produce a specific pattern of behavior, and the real agent behavior
"An organization is a system of continuous activity pursuing a goal of a specified kind" (Max Weber, Basic Concepts in Sociology). Organization is a very broad and general concept. It is commonly used for a group of agents where the rules and regulations are enforced by specific individuals. "A social relationship which is either closed or limits the admission of outsiders will be called an organization when its regulations are enforced by specific individuals: a chief and, possibly, an administrative staff, which normally also has representative powers." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 1.12). Often organization is used in the sense of formal organization. "An association with a continuously and rationally operating staff will be called a formal organization". (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 1.15)
ORGANIZATION A group of agents pursuing a goal of a specified kind, where the rules are enforced by specific agents
"Continuous rational activity of a specified kind will be called an enterprise." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 1.15). An enterprise is closely related to an ORGANIZATION, but does not necessarily contain a continuously and rationally operating staff.
ENTERPRISE Continuous activity of a specified kind for a group of agents guided by rational rules
"An organization which claims authority only over voluntary members will be called a voluntary association (Verein)". (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 1.15).
"The term 'party' will be employed to designate associations, membership in which rests on formally free recruitment. The end to which its activity is devoted is to secure power within an organization for its leaders in order to attain ideal or material advantages for its active members." (Max Weber, Economy and Society, Chap 3.18).
Process is a very broad term. In general, it means a naturally occurring or designed sequence of changes of properties/attributes of a system/object.
PROCESS In a MAS a process is a naturally occurring course of agent actions or designed sequence of agent operations which produces some outcome
Good vs. Bad
Related to "Virtue/Vice" duality. Only makes sense in a certain context. The spectrum of good vs. bad actions characterizes the degree of usefulness of an action for a specific group, community or society.
GOOD/BAD An action of an agent is good/bad for a specific group of agents if it has constructive/destructive (desirable/undesirable) effects on the group